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  • Anesthetic

    an•es•thet•ic | “an-uh-sthe-tick”

    An agent that temporarily depresses neuronal function, effectively numbing the area and producing a loss of sensation.

    Nitrous oxide, also known as laughing gas, gives patients an exhilarating feeling while serving as an anesthetic to help reduce pain.

  • Antibiotics

    an•ti•bi•ot•ics | “an-ty-by-ot-icks”

    A substance produced or derived from certain fungi, bacteria, or other organisms that can destroy infections and disease.

    Doctors prescribed antibiotics to treat his ear infection.

  • Artery

    ar•ter•y | “ar-teh-ree”

    A part of the circulatory system made up of branching vessels moving blood from various parts of the body from the heart.

    One of the main arteries can be found in the neck.

  • Arthritis

    ar•thri•tis |“ar-thry-tiss”

    Acute or chronic inflammation of a joint characterized by stiffness and pain.

    Staying active can help ward off a variety of health concerns that happen as you get older like obesity and arthritis.

  • Blanching

    The occurrence of skin becoming white or pale due to lack of blood flow in the area.

    Blanching of the skin typically means there's an obstruction preventing blood from moving to that part of the body.

  • Blood
    The fluid made up of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets that circulates in the vascular system, and transports oxygen and nutrients to the body and waste materials away from the tissue.

    The patient lost a lot of blood after severely cutting her arm.

  • Blood sugar (high)
    The result of not having enough insulin in the body.

    Patients with high blood sugar may experience blurred vision, weight loss and the need to constantly use the restroom.

  • Blood sugar (low)
    The result of having an abnormally low level of glucose in the body.

    Patients with high blood sugar may experience blurred vision, weight loss and the need to constantly use the restroom.

  • Blood transfusion

    An injection of blood from one person or animal into the bloodstream of another.

    The blood bank is asking for donations because numerous people require blood transfusions after a major car accident.

  • Blood type

    The specific category of blood each individual has, consisting of four major types; O, A, B, and AB. These types are based on the presence or absence of specific antigens in red blood cells.

    Once doctors locate a heart donor, it is matched with candidates based on their blood type, body size(...)

  • Bloodstream

    The blood flowing through the circulatory system in the living body.

    IV medication goes straight into the patient’s bloodstream.

  • Butterfly wings

    A medical device consisting of a short needle with two flexible wings to hold the IV infusion equipment in place.

    The use of butterfly wings allows patients more freedom of movement.

  • Cannula

    cann•u•la | “can-yah-luh”

    A thin plastic tube used for insertion into the body to draw off fluid or to introduce medication.

    The cannula goes into the vein to deliver medication.

  • Catheter

    cath•e•ter | “kath-ih-terr”

    A thin tube inserted into the body for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.

    The fluids flow from the container, through the catheter and into the patient.

  • Central Line Associated Bloodstream Infection

    An infection that occurs when bacteria or viruses enter the bloodstream through the central line.

    The patient suffering from CLABSI has a fever and soreness around the central line.

  • Central Venous Catheter

    cen•tral ve•nous cath•e•ter | “sen-trull vee-nuss kath-ih-ter”

    A catheter placed into a vein in the neck, chest or groin for an extended period of time.

    The dialysis patient required the use of a central venous catheter.

  • Chemotherapy

    chem•o•ther•a•py | “kee-mo-ther-uh-pee”

    A treatment that uses chemicals with toxic effects upon the illness-producing microorganisms or that selectively target cancerous tissue.

    The doctors prescribed chemotherapy to treat the cancerous cells in her lung.


    An infection that occurs when bacteria or viruses enter the bloodstream through the central line.

    The patient suffering from CLABSI has a fever and soreness around the central line.

  • Clotting

    The interaction of white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets that causes a chemical reaction and forms a soft, insoluble mass.

    Blood clotting is an important process that prevents excessive bleeding when a blood vessel is injured.

  • Deep Vein Thrombosis

    deep vein “throm-boh-sis”

    The formation of a blood clot inside a deep vein, normally found in the leg.

    Injuring a vein can prevent blood from circulating and clotting correctly, which can lead to a case of Deep Vein Thrombosis.

  • Dehydration

    de•hy•dra•tion | “dee-hi-dray-shun”

    An abnormal loss of water from the body, especially from illness or physical exertion.

    Heat and humidity combined with physical exertion are a major trigger of dehydration.

  • Diabetes
    A metabolic condition characterized by inadequate production or utilization of insulin, resulting in excessive amounts of glucose in the blood or urine.

    Doctors link the intake of too much refined sugar to everything from heart disease to diabetes.

  • Dislodgement

    dis•lodge•ment | “dis-loj-ment”

    To unintentionally remove an IV from a previously fixed position.

    His arm got caught on the catheter resulting in the dislodgement of the line from the patient.

  • DVT

    deep vein “throm-boh-sis”

    The formation of a blood clot inside a deep vein, normally found in the leg.

    Injuring a vein can prevent blood from circulating and clotting correctly, which can lead to a case of Deep Vein Thrombosis.

  • Extravasation

    ex•tra•va•sa•tion | “ik-strav-uh-zay-shun”

    The accidental infiltration of a vesicant or chemotherapeutic drug into the surrounding IV site.

    The extravasation caused pain and infection due to the ill effects of the vesicant.

  • Fluids

    Liquid that carries electrolytes, nutrients, medicine or other vital chemicals to and through tissue cells.

    The nurse administered fluids through an IV to treat the dehydrated patient.

  • Flushing

    The act of clearing intravenous lines of any medicine or perishable liquids to keep the lines and entry area clean and sterile.

    The nurse flushed the IV with saline after the medication was delivered into the patient.

  • Gauge

    A measurement for the length of the thickness of a needle, the outside diameter of a catheter.

    Pediatric patients who require IV therapy typically need a smaller gauge catheter.

  • Infection

    in•fec•tion | “in-feck-shun”

    An invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms that may cause harm to a bodily part or tissue.

    The patient needs an injection of antibiotics to fight off the infection.

  • Infiltration

    in•fil•tra•tion | “in-fill-tray-shun”

    The delivery of fluid and/or medication outside the vein and into the surrounding soft tissue.

    The patient suffered an infiltration when the tip of the catheter slipped out of their vein.

  • Inflammation

    in•flam•ma•tion | “in-fluh-may-shun”

    The reaction of living tissue to injury or infection, characterized by heat, redness, swelling, and pain.

    She sprained her ankle while running and experienced inflammation around her foot and leg.

  • Insulin
    A protein hormone secreted by the pancreas that controls the concentration of glucose in the blood.

    Insulin deficiencies typically result in the onset of diabetes.

  • Intravenous

    in•tra•ve•nous | “in-truh-vee-nuss”

    Administered by entering a vein.

    The doctor prescribed an intravenous medication.

  • Intravenous (IV) therapy

    in•tra•ve•nous ther•a•py | “in-truh-vee-nuss ther-uh-pee”

    The delivery of liquid substances directly into the vein to treat a bodily disorder.

    Intravenous (IV) therapy was used to treat dehydration.

  • IV (or infusion) pump

    A device that infuses fluids, medication or nutrients into a patient’s circulatory system.

    The nurse uses an IV (or infusion) pump to administer medication directly into the patient’s vein.

  • Lactated Ringers

    A sterile solution used to replace fluid lost by the body.

    Surgical patients receive Lactated Ringers to replenish their calcium, potassium, sodium, and water levels because they're unable to rehydrate on their own while under anesthesia.

  • Marrow

    The soft, fatty, inner tissue of the bone that serves as the major site of blood cell production.

    Unlike donors of vital organs like kidneys, marrow donors can give over and over again.

  • Medical Device

    med•i•cal de•vice | “med-ih-kull duh-vhys”

    An instrument or machine used to prevent, diagnose or treat an illness or disease, or for detecting, measuring, correcting or modifying bodily functions.

    The patients may need a medical device to diagnose their ailment.

  • Midline Catheter

    mid•line cath•e•ter | “mid-lyne kath-ih-ter”

    A catheter placed into the upper arm above the elbow and below the neck for more than five days, but less than a month.

    The patient with hard to reach veins needed a midline catheter.

  • Necrosis

    ne•cro•sis | “nuh-kroh-sis”

    The death of tissue in the body, usually within a localized area due to an interruption of the blood supply to that body part.

    Doctors performed an amputation to remove the patient’s arm after an IV infiltration led to severe necrosis.

  • Nutrient

    nu•tri•ent | “nu-tree-unt”

    A substance that acts as a source of nourishment, particularly an ingredient in food.

    When digesting food moves through the small intestines, it mixes with chemical and breaks down allowing the body to absorb the nutrients.

  • Peripheral Venous Catheter (Peripherally Inserted Venous Catheter- PIV)

    per•iph•er•al ve•nous cath•e•ter | “puh-riff-er-ull vee-nuss kath-ih-ter”

    Also known as a Standard Line, the most common intravenous access method where the line is placed in the arms, hands, legs or feet.

    Peripheral intravenous catheters deliver medications, hydration fluids, blood(...)

  • Plasma

    The liquid part of the blood.

    Plasma infusions can help patients who are sick survive an infection.

  • Platelets

    Tiny cell fragments found in blood plasma that promote blood clotting.

    Platelets contribute to blood clotting by sticking to damaged blood vessels and helping to prevent bleeding.

  • Red Blood Cells

    Cells that carry fresh oxygen throughout the body and remove carbon dioxide by transporting it to the lungs prior to being exhaled.

    Red blood cells are used to distribute oxygen throughout the systems.

  • Saline

    sa•line | “say-leen”

    A sterile solution of sodium chloride used to dilute medications for intravenous therapy or to maintain adequate hydration.

    The patient was given saline to treat their dehydration.

  • Saline lock IV

    An IV that is flushed with saline before being capped off.

    The nurse saline locked the IV after continuous fluids were completed.

  • Sodium

    An electrolyte and mineral that is naturally abundant, especially in salt added to foods, seasoning or preservation, and helps to maintain fluid inside and outside of the body’s cells.

    Eating large amounts of salty foods can, over time, result in excessive sodium levels in the body that can(...)

  • Sodium Chloride

    sodium chlor•ide | “so-dee-um klor-eye-d”

    The same as common table salt.

    Sodium chloride helps to replenish electrolytes in the body and irrigates wounds.

  • Sterile

    Free from disease-causing germs or microorganisms.

    The surgeon and her staff ensured the operating room was sterile before they began the procedure.

  • Swelling

    The abnormal enlargement of a body part caused by an accumulation of fluid in the tissue.

    His ankle immediately began swelling after he sprained it.

  • Tissue

    A collection of similar cells and organic material acting together to perform specific functions in the body.

    There are four basic types of tissue in the human body.

  • Trocar

    A sharp pointed surgical instrument used with a cannula to create an opening and provide an access port to withdraw blood or administer medication, blood or fluids.

    Doctors will sometimes use a trocar to establish an IV site.

  • Ultrasound

    A device that uses ultrasonic waves to treat ailments or to provide an image of internal structures.

    The nurse used an ultrasound for assistance viewing the patient’s veins when placing a peripheral venous catheter.

  • Vascular Access Devices (VADs)

    A device that’s inserted into the veins for diagnostic or therapeutic reasons, such as blood sampling, central venous pressure readings, and blood transfusions.

    The nurse inserted a vascular access device into the patient to deliver medication into their system.

  • Vein

    vein | “vayn”

    A part of the circulatory system made up of branching vessels moving blood from various parts of the body to the heart.

    The caregiver inserted the needle into the patient’s vein.

  • Vein porosity

    The level of which fluids and blood can move from the bloodstream and through their vein walls into the body.

    Poor vein porosity results in the body not being able to receive important vitamins and nutrients.

  • Vesicant drug

    ves•i•cant | “vess-ih-kent”

    An agent that causes destruction of tissue.

    The introduction of vesicant medication resulted in blisters forming on the patient’s skin.

  • Vitamin IV therapy

    A blend of vitamins and minerals infused into the body via catheter.

    Vitamin IV Therapy can help patients who lack essential nutrients due to a diet rich in processed foods.

  • Vitamins

    vi•ta•mins | “vy-tuh-mins”

    A group of organic substances found in natural food, beverages, or synthetically produced items that are essential to normal bodily functions.

    A healthy diet consists of carbs, proteins, fats, minerals, and vitamins.

  • White Blood Cells

    Colorless cells that exist in the body to fight invading microorganisms and foreign particles that can cause sickness.

    Having a healthy immune system means having plenty of white blood cells to fight disease-causing germs.

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